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By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) was once additionally constructive: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no drawback; in go back for this concession England decreased the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once no longer damaging both, for it verified universal exchange laws, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the only own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) by means of the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded less than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies less than the name of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persisted Decline of Royal strength Upon the demise of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: according to the Act of cost (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the advanced traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor nervous to rule, yet was once content material purely to reign. The enterprise of management, for that reason, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to delight their royal grasp yet to continue the good-will of the important celebration in Parliament. Sidenote: upward push of the cupboard because this tradition, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt of the uk this present day, and has been copied lately through many different nations, you will need to comprehend its early background. Even sooner than the accession of the Tudors, the good Council of nobles and prelates which had steered and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered such a lot of its real services to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...

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More and more the nobility, especially in France, were attracted to a life of amusement and luxury in the royal court. The nobility already had outlived its usefulness, yet it retained its oldtime privileges. [Sidenote: The Peasantry] In striking contrast to the nobility–the small minority of land-owning 37 aristocrats–were the peasantry–the mass of the people. They were the human beings who had to toil for their bread in the sweat of their brows and who were deemed of ignoble birth, as social inferiors, and as stupid and rude.

Here and there a prosperous merchant would have his luxurious home, built in what we now call the Gothic style, with pointed windows and gables, and, to save space in a walled town, with the second story projecting out over the street. The streets were usually in deplorable condition. There might be one or two broad highways, but the rest were mere alleys, devious, dark, and dirty. Often their narrowness made them impassable for wagons. In places the pedestrian waded gallantly through mud and garbage; pigs grunted ponderously as he pushed them aside; chickens ran under his feet; and occasionally a dead dog obstructed the way.

H. Johnson, Europe in the Sixteenth Century (1897), ch. i, ii; Mary A. Hollings, Renaissance and Reformation (1910), ch. i-v. On England: A. L. Cross, History of England and Greater Britain (1914), ch. xviii; J. F. Bright, History of England , Vol. II, a standard work; James Gairdner, Henry VII (1889), a reliable short biography; Gladys Temperley, Henry VII (1914), fairly reliable and quite readable; H. A. L. Fisher, Political History of England 1485-1547 (1906), ch. i-iv, brilliant and scholarly; A.

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