By Alexander Kokhanovsky(eds.)
Chapter 1 creation to Airborne Measurements of the Earth surroundings and floor (pages 1–5): Ulrich Schumann, David W. Fahey, Dr. Manfred Wendisch and Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier
Chapter 2 size of airplane kingdom and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables (pages 7–75): Jens Bange, Marco Esposito, Donald H. Lenschow, Philip R. A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Herman Smit and Martin Zoger
Chapter three In Situ hint fuel Measurements (pages 77–155): Jim McQuaid, Hans Schlager, Maria Dolores Andres?Hernandez, Stephen Ball, Agnes Borbon, Steve S. Brown, Valery Catoire, Piero Di Carlo, Thomas G. Custer, Marc von Hobe, James Hopkins, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Thomas Rockmann, Anke Roiger, Fred Stroh, Jonathan Williams and Helmut Ziereis
Chapter four In Situ Measurements of Aerosol debris (pages 157–223): Andreas Petzold, Paola Formenti, Darrel Baumgardner, Ulrich Bundke, Hugh Coe, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Richard C. Flagan, Markus Fiebig, James G. Hudson, Jim McQuaid, Andreas Minikin, Gregory C. Roberts and Jian Wang
Chapter five In Situ Measurements of Cloud and Precipitation debris (pages 225–301): Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier, William D. Bachalo, Patrick Y. Chuang, Biagio M. Esposito, Jacob Fugal, Timothy Garrett, Jean?Francois Gayet, Hermann Gerber, Andy Heymsfield, Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky, Alexei Korolev, R. Paul Lawson, David C. Rogers, Raymond A. Shaw, Walter Strapp and Manfred Wendisch
Chapter 6 Aerosol and Cloud Particle Sampling (pages 303–341): Martina Kramer, Cynthia Twohy, Markus Hermann, Armin Afchine, Suresh Dhaniyala and Alexei Korolev
Chapter 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (pages 343–411): Dr. Manfred Wendisch, Peter Pilewskie, Birger Bohn, Anthony Bucholtz, Susanne Crewell, Chawn Harlow, Evelyn Jakel, okay. Sebastian Schmidt, Rick Shetter, Jonathan Taylor, David D. Turner and Martin Zoger
Chapter eight Hyperspectral distant Sensing (pages 413–456): Eyal Ben?Dor, Daniel Schlapfer, Antonio J. Plaza and Tim Malthus
Chapter nine LIDAR and RADAR Observations (pages 457–526): Jacques Pelon, Gabor Vali, Gerard Ancellet, Gerhard Ehret, Pierre H. Flamant, Samuel Haimov, Gerald Heymsfield, David Leon, James B. Mead, Andrew L. Pazmany, Alain Protat, Zhien Wang and Mengistu Wolde
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Additional info for Airborne Measurements for Environmental Research: Methods and Instruments
The details of how altimeter setting is mechanized in an aircraft pressure altimeter can be found in Iribarne and Godson (1981). Both the hypsometric altitude from Eq. 1) and the pressure altitude from Eq. 5) assume that there are no horizontal pressure gradients. Height measurements based on RADAR are not covered here. The sum of RADAR altitude plus the height of the terrain above sea level approximates hypsometric or pressure altitude measurements, but accurate terrain data is not available at very ﬁne scale, and 11 12 2 Measurement of Aircraft State and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables surface artifacts such as buildings can complicate that determination except, of course, over the sea.
Traces of LWC, Ze , Temperature and ZDR at 105 m from the aircraft are shown in (c). (d) Sample images from a PMS 2D-C probe. The width of each strip represents 800 μm. 21 Fuzzy-logic based classiﬁcation of particle from a ﬂight in winter Ns over Ontario, Canada. Examples of particle images recorded with a PMS 2D-C probe at ﬂight level are also shown for reference. 27 Downward looking RADAR and LIDAR observations collected in an Arctic cloud on 1 April 2008 during the POLARCAT ﬁeld campaign using the RALI system on the French Falcon ATR42 aircraft.
0065 K m−1 . 65 K. This is the atmospheric layer important for normal aviation, although the tabulated standards continue further up to 86 000 m. Applying this temperature distribution, we can calculate the altitude for a standard day from a pressure measurement alone in any given ﬂight level. In aviation, this is exactly what happened to the avionic instrument standards. 0065 K m−1 . Then, the instrument shows the pressure altitude. The importance of this standard procedure in aviation is the reliable vertical separation of trafﬁc in the air.