By Maurice Casey
In the United States for the previous couple of a long time, Q discussions in the USA were mostly framed by way of students like Robinson, Kloppenborg, Mack and Crossan. of their works, those students declare, with a shocking volume of self assurance, to grasp many stuff in regards to the foundation, improvement, style, personality, volume and goal of Q. consequently, many a long way achieving conclusions were asserted with reference to Christian origins and the ancient Jesus. yet fact be informed, a lot of those conclusions were equipped on little greater than hypothesis and methodological difficulties are by no means challenging to realize.
Let me try and summarize in short the conclusions which were drawn by way of a number of the fogeys writing books approximately Q who've established their works at the above-mentioned students. it truly is often assumed (and sometimes argued) that Q was a unmarried Greek rfile, or that it may be accurately categorised based on genera (e.g. "sayings of the wise") or that Q and the "community" chargeable for it may be quite linked to old Cynicism. Early Christianity, we're advised, begun with a gaggle of itinerant Cynics who beloved to speak about nature and who loved being a stick within the eye of traditionalism (earliest strata of Q). Afterwards, it developed into an eschatologically-oriented workforce with a lot nearer ties to Judaism (later strata of Q). Then, with the composition of Mark's Gospel and with the stratified Q's eventual enshrinement within the Gospel's of Matthew and Luke the origian Q was once misplaced and all yet forgotten ... till contemporary students recovered it and defined to us what all of it means.
Kloppenborg's stratification conception and Downing's, Vaage's, Crossan's and Mack's claims approximately Jesus being a "Cynic sage" have supplied well known authors with fodder for every type of ridiculous historic reconstructions concerning the lifetime of Jesus and early Christianity. In his personal old comic strip of Q learn Casey runs throughout the scholarship top as much as our unhappy present scenario in Q scholarship, targeting males like Toedt, Luehrman and Kloppenborg, exhibiting how their methodologies have been very unsound and feature been accredited all-too-uncritically. Casey complains of ways Q examine has turn into "beaurocratized", in which he implies that students usually depend upon one another's earlier arguments instead of own examinations of the first resource fabric (e.g. the hot discoveries at Qumran). He additionally issues to the way in which arguments for Q contain loads of question-begging innovations. for instance, the arguments Kloppenborg makes use of to teach how Luke or Matthew displaced sure sayings inside of Q might simply as simply be taken to teach that those sayings initially existed independently and weren't extracted from an present rfile (at least no longer one with its personal significant association) after which rearranged in accordance with the redactor's theological programme.
Casey's criticisms on contemporary Q scholarship might on my own make the publication worthy procuring given that sturdy criticisms like his are going almost unheard within the ruckus of the entire sensationalist rules being proposed those days.
Casey additionally, particularly unexpectedly, criticizes a few of the early Aramaic techniques to the Gospels, even Matthew Black's striking paintings. i discovered his comments the following insightful and a trademark of his personal reflective and demanding brain.
Casey's thesis is that a minimum of a few of Q was once initially preserved in Aramaic, now not Greek. additionally, it was once now not a united composition, yet can have existed as a number of self reliant sayings. The translated Greek Q existed in not less than translations prior to Matthew and Luke acquired to it and those detailed translations are detectable and partly recoverable by means of retroverting the texts into Aramaic - the language during which they have been initially preserved and which Jesus probably knew and spoke.
Casey additionally demanding situations the frequent assumption that Q contained not anything greater than what Matthew and Luke now carry in universal. for instance, it's always characterised as a "sayings resource" because it comprises only a few narratives. yet this declare will depend on a slightly complicated view of stratification. because it comes right down to us, Q contained numerous narratives (e.g. tales approximately John the Baptist, Christ's temptation, the therapeutic of the centurion's servant, Peter's leaving the scene and weeping bitterly after his three-fold denial, the query posed to Christ, "Who is he that struck you?").
One challenge i've got with Casey is his approach to demonstrating the Aramaic Vorlage in the back of Q: he attempts to teach how Matthew or Luke can have misinterpret or misinterpreted sure Aramaic phrases. i am not confident any of those arguments fairly carry up.
Still, the booklet comes as a refresher to me in view that i have learn a number of books in this subject now and they have often been from an identical perspective. This publication bargains a special examine issues and that i imagine provides a few stable nutrients for suggestion. A extra finished e-book on Q that i would suggest is "Q and Early Christianity" by means of Christopher Tuckett. Richard Horsley has additionally written a few sturdy reviews of Kloppenborg. For an excellent critique of the Cynic speculation, Craig Evans has an exceptional bankruptcy in his ebook "Fabricating Jesus." it is a really easy learn too, in contrast to this publication by way of Casey.
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Extra info for An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
EThL 67, 1991, 346–60. 124 See especially G. Theissen, ‘Wanderradikalismus: Literatursoziologische Aspekte ¨ der Uberlieferung von Worten Jesu im Urchristentum’, ZThK 70, 1973, 245–71; F. G. Downing, Jesus and the Threat of Freedom (London, 1987); ‘The Social Contexts of Jesus the Teacher: Construction or Reconstruction’, NTS 33, 1987, 439–51; ‘Quite like Q: A Genre for “Q”: The “Lives” of Cynic Philosophers’, Bib 69, 1988, 196–225; Christ and the Cynics: Jesus and other Radical Preachers in First-Century Tradition (Shefﬁeld, 1988); Cynics and Christian Origins (Edinburgh, 1992); L.
80 M. D. Goulder, ‘On Putting Q to the Test’, NTS 24, 1978, 218–34. Other contributions include the more general demolition, ‘A House Built on Sand’, in A. E. ), Alternative Approaches to New Testament Study (London, 1985), pp. 1–24. 81 See pp. 45–7 below. 82 See n. 49 above. 83 Robinson, in Kloppenborg, Formation of Q, p. xi; Tuckett, Q and the History, p. 69. The state of play 23 Thirdly, there are detailed errors in the actual handling of the older arguments for Aramaic material. At Matt. 41, Wellhausen suggested that at Matt.
Branham and M-O. ), The Cynics. The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy (Berkeley, 1996). 42, which he gives in an English version, so shortened as to omit several of the main points which enable us to set Matt. 42 in its original cultural background:126 But woe to you Pharisees, for you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and neglect justice and the love of God. Vaage’s supposed parallels include this one, from Diogenes: He would rebuke people in general regarding their prayers, declaring that they asked for those things that seemed good to them and not for what is truly good.