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By Alasdair McAndrew

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The User’s handbook is considered one of 4 manuals that represent the documentation for NASTRAN, the
other 3 being the Theoretical handbook, the Programmer’s handbook and the Demonstration Problem
Manual .
even supposing the User’s handbook comprises all the details that's without delay associated
with the answer of issues of NASTRAN, the consumer will locate it fascinating to consult the other
manuals for suggestions within the answer of particular consumer problems.
The Theoretical handbook provides a good creation to NASTRAN and provides advancements of
the analytical and numerical methods that underlie the program.
The User’s guide is
instructive and encyclopedic in nature, yet is particular to these goods with regards to the use of
NASTRAN which are normally self sustaining of the computing procedure being used.
topics and knowledge that's required for the upkeep and amendment of this system are
treated within the Programmer’s Manual.
The Programmer’s handbook additionally offers a whole description
of this system, together with the mathematical equations applied within the code.
The Demonstration
Problem guide provides a dialogue of the pattern difficulties added w! th NASTRAN, thereby
illustrating the formula of the different sorts of prob’! emsthat can b~ solved with NASH? PN.
In addition to the 4 guide~ defined above, there's additionally a NASTRAN User’s consultant that
serves as a instruction manual for users.
It describes the entire NASTRAN gains and suggestions and
illustrates them via examples.
different very good assets for NASTRAN-related subject matters are the
proceedings of the NASTRAN clients’ Colloquia (held often each year) which supply a wide body
of info in keeping with consumer studies with NASTRAN.
The User’s handbook has lately been thoroughly revised and updated.
so that it will facilitate
easier updating of the guide sooner or later to take care of with more recent releases of NASTRAN, it has now
been divided into volumes.
Volume I contains seven sections dIldcontains all the fabric that was once within the old
single quantity, other than part 3.
This part has been re-arranged into 4 sections and forms
Volume II.
on the way to steer clear of confusion, part three of quantity I doesn't comprise something different than
a connection with the recent quantity II.
additionally, it's going to be famous right here that, except explicitly indicated
——. .
—-—. .
— . .. .
—. --.
. .
to . .. . sections
. .
——. .
in each one —. ——. —---
quantity refer onl y to ——
sections in . .——.
that volume,
NASTRAN makes use of the finite point method of structural modeling, in which the distributed
physical houses of a constitution are represented by way of a finite variety of structural parts which
are interconnected at a finite variety of grid issues, to which so much are utilized and for which
displacements are’calculated.
The strategies for outlining and loading a structural version are defined in quantity I, part 1.
This part encompasses a sensible reference for each card that
is used for structural modeling.
The NASTRAN info Deck, together with the main points for every of the information playing cards, is defined in
Volume I, part 2.
This part additionally discusses the NASTRAN regulate playing cards which are associated
with using the program.
As pointed out past, quantity I, part three doesn't include whatever except a reference to
Volume II.
The systems for utilizing the NASTRAN plotting strength are defined in quantity I, part 4.
Both deformed and undeformed plots of the structural version are available.
reaction curves are also
available for static, brief reaction, frequency reaction, modal flutter and modal aeroelastic
response analyses.
NASTRAN comprises challenge resolution sequences, known as inflexible formats,
every one of those rigid
formats is linked to the answer of difficulties for a specific form of static or dynamic
as well as the inflexible layout tactics, the consumer may well decide to write his personal Direct Matrix
Abstraction software (DMAP),
This approach allows the person to execute a sequence of matrix
operations of his selection besides any application modules or govt operations that he could need.
The principles governing the production of DMAP courses are defined in quantity I, part 5.
The NASTRAN diagnostic messages are documented and defined in quantity I, part 6.
NASTRAN Dictionary, in quantity I, part 7, comprises descriptions of mnemonics, acronyms, phrases,
and different favourite NASTRAN terms.
Volume II, part 1 features a normal description of inflexible structure procedures.
instructions and knowledge for using every one inflexible layout are given in quantity II, Sections 2, 3
and four, which take care of the inflexible codecs linked to the DISPLACEMENT, warmth and AERO
approaches, respectively.
There is a restricted variety of pattern difficulties integrated within the User’s Manual.
notwithstanding, a more
comprehensive set of demonstration difficulties, a minimum of one for every of the inflexible codecs, is
described within the NASTRAN Demonstration challenge Manual,
the information decks can be found on tape for
each of the pc structures on which NASTRAN has been implemented.
Samples of the printer output
and of constitution plots and reaction plots will be acquired by way of executing those demonstration
The printer output for those difficulties can be to be had on microfiche.

Extra info for An Introduction to Digital Image Processing with MATLAB (draft)

Example text

Is the histogram equalization operation idempotent? That is, is performing histogram equalization twice the same as doing it just once? 9. tif. 10. tif’); >> [x,map]=gray2ind(c); The matrix x, when viewed, will appear as a very dark version of the cameraman image. Apply histogram equalization to it, and compare the result with the original image. 11. 2, enter the command 56 CHAPTER 2. ’),grid on What are you seeing here? 12. Experiment with some other greyscale images. 13. 1. 1 Introduction We have seen in chapter 2 that an image can be modified by applying a particular function to each pixel value.

12. Experiment with some other greyscale images. 13. 1. 1 Introduction We have seen in chapter 2 that an image can be modified by applying a particular function to each pixel value. Neighbourhood processing may be considered as an extension of this, where a function is applied to a neighbourhood of each pixel. The idea is to move a “mask”: a rectangle (usually with sides of odd length) or other shape over the given image. 1. 1: Using a spatial mask on an image is called a filter. If the function by which the new grey value is calculated is a linear function of all the grey values in the mask, then the filter is called a linear filter.

7 shows these functions. The effect of these functions is called solarization. 42 CHAPTER 2. 3 Histograms Given a greyscale image, its histogram consists of the histogram of its grey levels; that is, a graph indicating the number of times each grey level occurs in the image. tif’); >> imshow(p),figure,imhist(p),axis tight (the axis tight command ensures the axes of the histogram are automatically scaled to fit all the values in). 8. Since the grey values are all clustered together in the centre of the histogram, we would expect the image to be poorly contrasted, as indeed it is.

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