By Alasdair McAndrew

**Read Online or Download An Introduction to Digital Image Processing with MATLAB (draft) PDF**

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The User’s handbook is considered one of 4 manuals that represent the documentation for NASTRAN, the

other 3 being the Theoretical handbook, the Programmer’s handbook and the Demonstration Problem

Manual .

even supposing the User’s handbook comprises all the details that's without delay associated

with the answer of issues of NASTRAN, the consumer will locate it fascinating to consult the other

manuals for suggestions within the answer of particular consumer problems.

The Theoretical handbook provides a good creation to NASTRAN and provides advancements of

the analytical and numerical methods that underlie the program.

The User’s guide is

instructive and encyclopedic in nature, yet is particular to these goods with regards to the use of

NASTRAN which are normally self sustaining of the computing procedure being used.

Computer-dependent

topics and knowledge that's required for the upkeep and amendment of this system are

treated within the Programmer’s Manual.

The Programmer’s handbook additionally offers a whole description

of this system, together with the mathematical equations applied within the code.

The Demonstration

Problem guide provides a dialogue of the pattern difficulties added w! th NASTRAN, thereby

illustrating the formula of the different sorts of prob’! emsthat can b~ solved with NASH? PN.

In addition to the 4 guide~ defined above, there's additionally a NASTRAN User’s consultant that

serves as a instruction manual for users.

It describes the entire NASTRAN gains and suggestions and

illustrates them via examples.

different very good assets for NASTRAN-related subject matters are the

proceedings of the NASTRAN clients’ Colloquia (held often each year) which supply a wide body

of info in keeping with consumer studies with NASTRAN.

The User’s handbook has lately been thoroughly revised and updated.

so that it will facilitate

easier updating of the guide sooner or later to take care of with more recent releases of NASTRAN, it has now

been divided into volumes.

Volume I contains seven sections dIldcontains all the fabric that was once within the old

single quantity, other than part 3.

This part has been re-arranged into 4 sections and forms

Volume II.

on the way to steer clear of confusion, part three of quantity I doesn't comprise something different than

a connection with the recent quantity II.

additionally, it's going to be famous right here that, except explicitly indicated

——. .

otherwise,

—.

all

—-—. .

references

— . .. .

—. --.

. .

to . .. . sections

. .

——. .

in each one —. ——. —---

quantity refer onl y to ——

sections in . .——.

that volume,

.

NASTRAN makes use of the finite point method of structural modeling, in which the distributed

physical houses of a constitution are represented by way of a finite variety of structural parts which

are interconnected at a finite variety of grid issues, to which so much are utilized and for which

displacements are’calculated.

The strategies for outlining and loading a structural version are defined in quantity I, part 1.

This part encompasses a sensible reference for each card that

is used for structural modeling.

The NASTRAN info Deck, together with the main points for every of the information playing cards, is defined in

Volume I, part 2.

This part additionally discusses the NASTRAN regulate playing cards which are associated

with using the program.

As pointed out past, quantity I, part three doesn't include whatever except a reference to

Volume II.

The systems for utilizing the NASTRAN plotting strength are defined in quantity I, part 4.

Both deformed and undeformed plots of the structural version are available.

reaction curves are also

available for static, brief reaction, frequency reaction, modal flutter and modal aeroelastic

response analyses.

NASTRAN comprises challenge resolution sequences, known as inflexible formats,

every one of those rigid

formats is linked to the answer of difficulties for a specific form of static or dynamic

analysis.

as well as the inflexible layout tactics, the consumer may well decide to write his personal Direct Matrix

Abstraction software (DMAP),

This approach allows the person to execute a sequence of matrix

operations of his selection besides any application modules or govt operations that he could need.

The principles governing the production of DMAP courses are defined in quantity I, part 5.

The NASTRAN diagnostic messages are documented and defined in quantity I, part 6.

The

NASTRAN Dictionary, in quantity I, part 7, comprises descriptions of mnemonics, acronyms, phrases,

and different favourite NASTRAN terms.

Volume II, part 1 features a normal description of inflexible structure procedures.

Specific

instructions and knowledge for using every one inflexible layout are given in quantity II, Sections 2, 3

and four, which take care of the inflexible codecs linked to the DISPLACEMENT, warmth and AERO

approaches, respectively.

There is a restricted variety of pattern difficulties integrated within the User’s Manual.

notwithstanding, a more

comprehensive set of demonstration difficulties, a minimum of one for every of the inflexible codecs, is

described within the NASTRAN Demonstration challenge Manual,

the information decks can be found on tape for

each of the pc structures on which NASTRAN has been implemented.

Samples of the printer output

and of constitution plots and reaction plots will be acquired by way of executing those demonstration

problems.

The printer output for those difficulties can be to be had on microfiche.

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**Extra info for An Introduction to Digital Image Processing with MATLAB (draft) **

**Example text**

Is the histogram equalization operation idempotent? That is, is performing histogram equalization twice the same as doing it just once? 9. tif. 10. tif’); >> [x,map]=gray2ind(c); The matrix x, when viewed, will appear as a very dark version of the cameraman image. Apply histogram equalization to it, and compare the result with the original image. 11. 2, enter the command 56 CHAPTER 2. ’),grid on What are you seeing here? 12. Experiment with some other greyscale images. 13. 1. 1 Introduction We have seen in chapter 2 that an image can be modified by applying a particular function to each pixel value.

12. Experiment with some other greyscale images. 13. 1. 1 Introduction We have seen in chapter 2 that an image can be modified by applying a particular function to each pixel value. Neighbourhood processing may be considered as an extension of this, where a function is applied to a neighbourhood of each pixel. The idea is to move a “mask”: a rectangle (usually with sides of odd length) or other shape over the given image. 1. 1: Using a spatial mask on an image is called a filter. If the function by which the new grey value is calculated is a linear function of all the grey values in the mask, then the filter is called a linear filter.

7 shows these functions. The effect of these functions is called solarization. 42 CHAPTER 2. 3 Histograms Given a greyscale image, its histogram consists of the histogram of its grey levels; that is, a graph indicating the number of times each grey level occurs in the image. tif’); >> imshow(p),figure,imhist(p),axis tight (the axis tight command ensures the axes of the histogram are automatically scaled to fit all the values in). 8. Since the grey values are all clustered together in the centre of the histogram, we would expect the image to be poorly contrasted, as indeed it is.