By Gordon L. Atkins
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Thirdly, the maximum rate of a pathway is controlled by the amounts of enzymes present. These three controls act at different levels within the cell and over different time scales. 1 lists the more important hormones that control energy metabolism together with the controls acting on their release. It also summarizes their major effects on the flow of materials between the three most important organs. Some of these are direct controls on transport processes or enzyme activities, some may be more indirect.
The oxaloacetate is converted via malate into pyruvate which then returns to the mitochondrion to replace the 'borrowed' pyruvate. The overall reaction is pyruvate -> acetyl coenzyme A 4- C O 2 This pathway is important because it is part of the process for storing surplus carbohydrates (glucose) and perhaps amino acids as triacylglycerols. Adipose tissue and liver are the two important organs for free fatty acid synthesis. 33 ι free fatty acids glucose t glucose6-phosphate NADPH fructose-^ acyl coenzyme A 6-phosphate I NADH I I î H- ^ NADPH I pyruvate « malate « • oxalo acetate Τ acetyl coenzyme A citrate pyruvate L acetyl coenzyme A Fig.
Growth hormone FFA release! glucose uptake! hypoglycaemia stress Adrenaline FFA hyperglycaemia insulin T A G uptake! djlucose->TAG| FFA release! hypoglycaemia stress hyperglycaemia adrenaline (amino acids) (FFA) Insulin Adipose Glucagon Stimuli Hormone Inhibitors Release AA-^glucose! glycogen synthesis! glucose release! glycogen synthesis! glucose release! glycogenosis! gluconeogenesis! KB synthesis! glycogenosis! gluconeogenesis! AA catabolismi KB synthesis! glycogen synthesis! glucose release!